In conflict situation, besides the question what is the issue about? There are two other key questions: Who is who in this conflict? And how this conflict escalates? The former question seeks to determine actors who interact in the conflict and the latest analyses conflict process or dynamics. The understanding of those elements helps to set up the complexity of the issue and on how parties involved in the conflict play their role. In Lulofs and Cahn words, we distinguish three parties Primary actors, secondary party interested third party. As dynamic, conflict escalates through stages to stages which include latent conflict phase, initiation phase, balancing of power phase, balance of power phase, and disruption phase (Lulofs & Cahn, p. 75).
There are many types of process in conflict. I have chosen the competitive Conflict Escalation Cycle to explain one of the most complex situation conflicts in Africa, DRC conflict situation. From my little perception of this complex situation, I have drawn an analytical tool through what my task will be based.
On the conflict going one in DRC, there are many actors whom we can gather in three parties.
Primary parties which include the DRC as state, DRC Politicians, so called M23 (former CNDP), and Rwanda. In Mars, 23th 2009, DRC have signed a peace agreement with CNDP militia (Congrès National pour la Défense du Peuple) in Goma in order to end the war which has begun in 2007 in North and South Kivu. CNDP, today M23 accuse the Congolese government to ignore or to abstain this agreement, and as consequence they have decided the resumption of the war. Furthermore, the post electoral conflict is perceived as triggering event of this war. DRC Politicians are divided and the left wing (opposition) does not recognize Joseph Kabila legitimacy. In the other hand, DRC accuses Rwanda to interfere in Congolese political and economic life and empower the greedy militias in east in procuring to them armies. This grievance was born out by a report made by MONUSCO experts.
The secondary party is those who have been affected by the conflict, the east population who are victims of diseases, displacement (refugees), sexual violence, and poverty. The interested third party is more complex. We have Superpowers (USA, France, Russia, Belgium, etc.), IMF and World Bank, China, Multinational Cooperation. The Superpower (none expressed), Multinational cooperation (none expressed) are escalators in this conflict, they have been accused to empower the greedy militia with Rwanda and Uganda playing the linker role, in order to exploit the minerals. At the same time, together with the IMF and World Bank they are fighting against DRC because of the famous China-Congo contract which they judge as a form of economic cooperation on a capitalist basis, without aid and charity. What Chinese got by a “right way”, other superpower have to do by a violent way?
In this conflict there is a joker, we don’t know the really presence of UN in DRC. Congolese opinion is that: MONUSCO safeguard the interests of Superpower (western states).
 From where the Idiom M23 emerged in order to specify the non respect of this agreement .
 Mission des Nations Unies au Congo