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Every society, relying on the assumption on the social contract, seeks to create a “just ground “where each member of the society fits and enjoys to be part of it. However, it is difficult to find “just society” which offers to everyone the same opportunities and equal access to social services. Thus follows that where there is a society, it will be always a certain kind of exclusion or minorities therefore the society is somehow a cradle of minorities or differences that can cause conflicts. Conflicts can occur because of the social inequalities, oppression, exclusion or even marginalization of a small group. There are some mechanisms suggested to handle such scope. Affirmative action or indigenization is one of them.
For John Rawls (1971, p. 31), the way towards the empowerment of minorities is the way redistributive justice is done. It is to shift from justice to fairness, a type of affirmative action. He suggest two principles that should guide the practice of the Affirmative action; a) offering to each member an equal right in the total system of freedoms which should be equal for all in the same structure and b) when redistributing opportunities, economic and social inequalities should in the benefit of minorities.
The claim of minorities is sometimes based on rights, the rights of national minorities related to education, language, socio-economic development and effective participation or political participation in social life. Coakley (2) offers four levels of typical demands related to state demands of subordinate ethnic group: demand of equality citizenships (the unresolved problem of Tutsi and Hutus in the Eastern part of the Democratic Republic of Congo), demand for cultural rights, demand for institutional political recognition with symbolic representative and demand for session.
One of the ways to deal with that in order to keep peace will be to find mechanism to empower them and to make them to feel important as citizens of the state. It can be offering to them opportunity for same education system, public sector control, direct and indirect actions, state regulation (implementation from insulation to quota law): Schedule scale. In any case, the affirmative action targets a social and an economic development of minorities. I think that the success and the long standing affirmative action is to offer to minorities the easy access to education so they can be can be competitive in the national labour market as well in international market.